Database management is a method of managing information that is used to support a company’s business operations. It involves storing data, disseminating it to users and applications, editing it as needed as well as monitoring changes in data and protecting against data corruption due to unexpected failure. It is one component of a company’s total informational infrastructure, which supports decision-making and corporate growth, as well as compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.
In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with other companies developed the first database systems. They evolved into information management systems (IMS) which allowed large amounts of data to be stored and retrieved for a variety of purposes. From calculating inventory, to supporting complex financial accounting functions as well as human resource functions.
A database is a set of tables that organizes data in accordance with a specific pattern, such as one-to many relationships. It uses the primary key to identify records and permits cross-references between tables. Each table has a set of fields, referred to as attributes, which provide information about the data entities. Relational models, developed by E. F. “TedCodd Codd in the 1970s at IBM and IBM, are the most well-known database type in the present. This model is based on normalizing the data, making it more easy to use. It is also simpler to update data because it doesn’t require the modification of several databases.
Most DBMSs are able to support different types of databases, offering internal and external levels of organization. The internal level concerns cost, scalability, as well as other operational issues, including the physical layout of the database. The external level focuses on how the database appears in user interfaces and other applications. It could include a mix of different external views (based on the various data models) and may include virtual tables that are created from generic data in order to improve performance.